HHJ Hwanghwajip (Ch: Huanghua ji) 皇華集

HMC (Yŏngin p'yojŏm) Han'guk munjip ch'onggan (影印標點)韓國文集叢刊

HMC b (Yŏngin p'yojŏm) Han'guk munjip ch'onggan (影印標點)韓國文集叢刊續編

KS Koryŏ sa 高麗史

MS Ming shi 明史

MSL Ming shilu 明實錄

SBCK Sibu congkan 四部叢刊

SKCM Siku quanshu cumu congshu 四庫全書存目叢書

SKQS (Yingyin Wenyuange) Siku quanshu (影印文淵閣)四庫全書

SSJZS Shisan jing zhushu 十三經註疏

TDYS Taedong yasŭng 大東野乘

TMS Tongmunsŏn 東文選

YHNCJ Yŏng haengnok chŏn'jip 燕行錄全集

YS Yuan shi 元史

ZBHHJ Zuben Huanghua ji 足本皇華集



● Choice of romanization reflects existing scholarly convention and is in the interest of legibility. All romanization, except proper names, will be provided in italics.

● Korean romanization follows McCune-Reischauer.

● Chinese romanization follows Pinyin.

● Japanese romanization follows Hepburn.

● Romanizations of literary Chinese words will depend on the author’s country of origin. i.e. the words of a Chosŏn writer will be romanized in Korean.

● Proper names will be romanized according to a person’s country of origin.

● In ambiguous cases, such as literary Chinese words in classical texts, Korean romanization will be listed first, followed by Chinese, where relevant. In cases where it makes sense to romanize in a different order, the change is indicated. If there is no indication, the romanization reflects a Korean reading. I.e. tot’ong/daotong 道統 but, Ch. huangdi/ Kr. hwangche 皇帝 and sadae 事大.

Use of Chinese characters, han’gul, translation and romanization.

● Chinese characters will be provided for the sake of clarity.

● All proper names will be provided in Chinese characters, where relevant.

● The characters of translated official titles will be provided in the footnotes for clarity, with romanization.

● Both romanization and characters for any specific translated terms, indicated with quotation marks, will be provided in parenthetical comments. e.g. “civilizing transformation” (kyohwa 教化)

● Short literary Chinese phrases, which do not form complete clauses, will be provided in parenthesis after the translated text for clarity, but without romanization.

● Long literary Chinese passages comprising of one more complete sentences will be provided in footnotes without romanization.

● Modern language quotations in Korean or Chinese will be provided in translation only.


● Chicago Style will be used for all sources. Exceptions to the style will be made for reprints (both printed and digital) of pre-nineteenth century Korean, Chinese, or Japanese texts and for original editions. These works will be cited in ways that reflect their current organization in published works, archives, or digital collections.

● The fascicle (kwŏn/juan 卷) number of all such texts will be provided as “f.35” to indicate kwŏn/juan 35. This will be followed by an indication of page number listed in the spine, followed in turn by a roman letter indicating side or quadrant: i.e. f.35:5a.

● Fascicle is distinguished from volume (ch’aek/ce 冊), which will be abbreviated as “v.5,” for volume 5. Some texts will include both fascicle and volume numbers, i.e. v.5, f.35:5a.

● The Veritable Records of the Chosŏn Dynasty (Chosŏn wangjo sillok 朝鮮王朝實錄) will be cited, like other sources, according to fascicle and page (i.e. 26:5a) followed by the date and entry number in brackets (i.e. [1525/5/12#5]. The date will be in the order of reign year (in Gregorian equivalent), lunar month and date. Leap months will be indicated with the letter “a” following the number. The entry number reflects the organization of individual daily records in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty ( online edition (